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Section 1. Active and Passive Immunization
Vaccine AdministrationGENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PEOPLE ADMINISTERING VACCINES
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PEOPLE ADMINISTERING VACCINES
Personnel administering vaccines should take appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of spread of disease to or from patients. Hand hygiene should be used before and after each new patient contact. Gloves are not required when administering vaccines unless the health care professional has open hand lesions or will come into contact with potentially infectious body fluids. Syringes and needles must be sterile and preferably disposable. To prevent accidental needlesticks or reuse, a needle should not be recapped after use, and disposable needles and syringes should be discarded promptly in puncture-proof, labeled containers. Changing needles between drawing vaccine into the syringe and injecting it into the child is not necessary. Different vaccines should not be mixed in the same syringe unless specifically licensed and labeled for such use. Needle devices approved by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration are available.
Because of possible hypersensitivity of vaccine recipients to vaccine components, people administering vaccines or other biological products should be prepared to recognize and treat allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis (see Hypersensitivity Reactions to Vaccine Constituents, p 46). Facilities and personnel should be available for treating immediate hypersensitivity reactions. This recommendation does not preclude administration of vaccines in school-based or other nonclinic settings. Whenever possible, patients should be observed for an allergic reaction for 15 to 20 minutes after receiving immunization(s).
Syncope may occur after immunization, particularly in adolescents and young adults. Personnel should be aware of presyncopal manifestations and take appropriate measures to prevent injuries if weakness, dizziness, or loss of consciousness occurs. The relatively rapid onset of syncope in most cases suggests that having vaccine recipients sit